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The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the 'Central Powers' (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey), marking Russia's exit from World War I. While the treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year, it gave some relief to Bolsheviks waging the civil war in all directions and contributed to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland.
English actor | born on March 2nd, 1968 in Chester (England) | best known for his role as James Bond
The Berlin International Film Festival (German: Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), also called the Berlinale, is one of the world's leading film festivals and most reputable media events. It is held in Berlin, Germany and was founded in 1951. The first film festival opened on June 6, 1951. The festival has been celebrated annually in February since 1978.
In 1936, Hitler invited Riefenstahl to film the Olympic Games in Berlin. Her material became 'Olympia', a successful film which has since been widely noted for its technical and aesthetic achievements. She was one of the first filmmakers to use tracking shots in a documentary, placing a camera on rails to follow the athletes' movement, and she is noted for the slow motion shots included in the film. Riefenstahl's work on Olympia has been cited as a major influence in modern sports photography.
German actress, photographer and film director | born August 22, 1902 Berlin | her most famous films are "Triumph of the Will", a documentary film made at the 1934 congress in Nuremberg of the Nazi Party and the two-part Olympia (1938) | died September 8, 2003 Poecking/Starnberger See
German politician | born on June 20th, 1970 in Mendig (Rhineland-Palatinate) | in 1989 she becomes a memeber of the socialdemocratic SPD | Secretary General of the Social Democratic Party in 2009 and Minister of Labour and Social Affairs since 2013 | after the SPD lost the Federal Elections in September 2017 she was elected new chairwoman of a parliamentary group of the SPD in the federal parliament "Bundestag"
German politician (Social Democrat) | born December 18, 1913 Lübeck | 1957-1966 Governing Mayor of West Berlin | 1969-1974 first social-democratic Federal Chancellor | 1971 Nobel Peace Prize | Brandt promoted the unification of Europe and implemented a reconciliation with the Eastern neighbors | died October 8, 1992 Unkel
Women in Germany were granted the right to vote and be elected from the 12th November 1918
The German Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) is a politically-driven civil conflict in Germany following the abdication of the German Emperor at the end of World War I in November 1918 to August 1919 until the formal establishment of the so-called Weimar Republic. There was significant violence between the three major factions, including the far-left, which wished to overthrow the German government and establish a socialist republic; nationalists, who opposed the far left and the new republic's government; which opposed both the communist and nationalist factions. The revolution was triggered by the...
Weimar Tepublic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. It started with the proclamation of the German Republic by politician Philipp Scheidemann (SPD) on November 11th, 1918 and ended when Adolf Hitler was appointed as Chancellor on January 30th, 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The Wimar Republic was embossed by political unrest and economical and financial turmoil and a flourishing cultural life. It collapsed because large parts of the German population declined the system of a democratic Rep...
Questions turned into protests, protests into rebellion and rebellion into revolt. We shed light on the eventful years around 1968 in West Germany and embed them into the protest events worldwide - with selected motifs in >> 100 photo galleries (Captions only in German).
After over 200 years the last coal pit in Germany closes down. Coal minning in the Ruhr area is closely linked with Germany's rise to an industrial power in the 19th century and the "Wirtschaftswunder" after the Second World War. Once there were almost 150 pits in the Ruhr area with almost 600.000 coal miners working there in the End of the 1950ies. Before the last coal pit "Haniel-Prosper" shuts down in December 2018 we show you an impression of living and working conditions over the last 200 years.
Foundation of the Free University of Berlin in 1948 The Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) was founded on December 4, 1948 by students and staff who were relegated because of their political views from Humboldt University of Berlin, formerly the traditional Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität of Berlin, and at that time controlled by the authorities in the Soviet sector. Here an overview of the first 10 years.
The renaissance of the independance movement in Catalonia sets a focus on the history of this part of Spain and it's capital Barcelona. Here you will find an overview of historical and contemporary developments.
Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and worldwide payment system.It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. Some people consider digital currencies as highly risky because they are an easy target for speculation. Other important crypto currencies are Ripple, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Cardano, Litecoin und IOTA.
Following the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. Due the course of World War I. Germany and Austria-Hungary had created a puppet state called Kingdom of Poland in 1916. One of President Wilsons Fourteen Points indicated the establishment of an independant Poland after the Allies had won the war. In 1919 the Second Polish Republic was established.
The military defeat of the Central Powers at the end of Worl War I led to the collapse of Austria-Hungary and a movement of the different minorities to establish national states of their own. One of these miniorities were the Czechs and the closley related Slovaks in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. In 1916 influential Czechoslovakian politicians such as Tomas Garrigue Masaryk, Edvard Benes und Milan Rastislav Stefanik founded the Czechoslovak National Council. More than 90,000 Czech and Slovak volunteers formed the Czechoslovak Legions and fought with the Allies during Worl War I. This is one reason for th...
Staatliches Bauhaus, commonly known as Bauhaus, was an art school in Germany from 1919 to 1933, that combined crafts and fine arts. It is famous for its unique approach to design that it taught and publicised. For political reasons Bauhaus operated in three different German Cities. In Weimar from (1919- 1925), in Dessau (1925- 1932) and in Berlin (1932-1933). Three famous architect-directors created the unique Bauhaus style: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930 and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933. Then the college was closed under pressure from the Nazi governmen...
The Thirty Years' War was one of the longest and most destructive wars in European history. It started as a religious war between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire soon becoming a conflict between France and the Habsburg emperors concerning the question who dominates Europe. All major European powers were involved, with permanent changing alliances - regardless the religion question - several attempts to solve the conflict failed. The war ended with the Peace of Westphalia. The most important results were the independance of the Netherlands and Switzerland. Sweden was established as...
The series encompasses 151 black and white photo portraits of single persons or groups who, as artists or as facilitators, have made extraordinary long-term contributions to art in Vienna. The photographs were made in places to which the portraitees have a personal connection: at home, in the studio, atelier or gallery, or at a different place where they find insipration.
The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically expressed through terrorism. The first Ku Klux Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s. The current manifestation is splintered into several chapters with no connection to each other. It is estimated to have between 5,000 and 8,000 members.
Turkish politician | born on February 26th, 1954 in Istanbul | mayor of Istanbul from 1994 until 1998 | in 2001 he founded the Justice and Development Party (AKP) | he led the AKP to three general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 | after serving as prime minister he became new Turkish president in 2014
The Ottoman Empire, founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia, became very rapidly a transcontinental empire, includig huge parts of North Africa, Western Asia and the Balkans. After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 it turns into a European power. As defenders of the Holy Cities of Mekka and Medina the Sultans founded the Ottoman caliphate. During the 18th and 19th century the decline began because the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals and the rise of national movements inside the Empire. With the resignation of Mehmed VI. in 1922, the proc...
German-English social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher | born November 28, 1820 Barmen, Prussia | father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx | died August 5, 1895 London
German philosopher and political economist | born May 5, 1818 Trier | publishes (with Friedrich Engels) ''Das Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei'' (1848), commonly known as ''The Communist Manifesto'', the most celebrated pamphlet in the history of the socialist movement | author of the movement's most important book, ''Das Kapital'' (1867) | died March 14, 1883 London
In January 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero and Nama captain Hendrik Witbooi, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of dehydration. In August, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans, only to suffer a similar fate.The Herero and Namaqua Genocide was a campaign of racial extermination and collective punishment against the Herero and Nama people. It is considered as one of the first genocides of the 20th century. In July 2015,...